6-8: The Middle Way

莫逐有縁     Neither follow existence

勿住空忍     Nor dwell in emptiness

一種平懷     Carry the One serenely in your breast

泯然自盡     And dualism will vanish by itself

 

止動歸止     Stop motion, and you stop it over and over

止更彌動     The harder you try, the more the motion

唯滯兩邊     If you are merely in one or the other

寧知一種     How will you know the One?

 

一種不通     Not understanding the One

兩處失功     You miss it in two ways

遣有沒有     Expelling existence, you are without existence

從空背空     Pursuing emptiness, you never catch it

 

To say that the passions can be quieted and destroyed without right reasoning and scriptural teaching is the view and discourse of the philosophers, which is not to be practised by the intelligent. – The Lankavatara Sutra

One should first investigate the nature of the ego-soul and rid oneself of attachments; to try to go beyond without this investigation is of no value. – The Lankavatara Sutra (1932, p. 371)

The Buddha Realm is right here in the world;
There is no awakening apart from this world.
To search for enlightenment somewhere beyond this world
Is like looking for a rabbit with antlers. – Hui-neng (Verhoeven and Sure, 2014)

Suzuki (1953):

Tai-hui declares that mere quiet sitting avails nothing, for it leads nowhere, as no upturning takes place in one’s mind, whereby one comes back into the world of particulars with an entirely different outlook. Those quietists whose mental horizon does not rise above the level of the so-called “absolute silence of unfathomability” grope in the cave of eternal darkness. They fail to open the eye of wisdom (prajna). This is where they need the guiding hand of a genuine Zen master.

Tai-hui then proceeds to give cases of satori realized under a wise instructor, pointing out how necessary it is to interview an enlightened master and to reject once and for all the whole silence-mechanism, which is inimical to the growth of the Zen mind. This upturning of the whole mind is here called by Tai-hui, after the terminology of a sutra, “Entering into the stream and losing one’s abode,” where the dualism of motion [activity] and rest [quietude] forever ceases to obtain. (p. 27)

Yuan-chon Hsueh-Yen Tsu-ch’in (d. 1287)

At nineteen I was staying at the monastery of Ling-yin when I made the acquaintance of the recorder Lai of Ch’u-chou. He gave me this advice: “Your method has no life in it and will achieve nothing. There is a dualism in it; you keep motion and stillness as two separate poles of thought. To exercise yourself properly in Zen you ought to cherish a questioning spirit (tai-i), for according to the strength of your questioning spirit will be the depth of your enlightenment.” (Suzuki, 1953, p. 117)

Hakuin:

It is essential that you neither reject nor grasp for either the realm of activity or that of quietude, and that you continue your practice assiduously (at all times). Frequently you may feel that you are getting nowhere with practice in the midst of activity, whereas the quietistic approach brings unexpected results. Yet rest assured that those who use the quietistic approach can never hope to enter into meditation in the midst of activity. Should by chance a person who uses this approach enter into the dusts (that which is perceived through the six senses) and confusions (delusion or ignorance) of the world of activity, even the power of ordinary understanding which he had seemingly attained will be entirely lost. Drained of all vitality, he will be inferior to any mediocre, talentless person. The most trivial matters will upset him, an inordinate cowardice will afflict his mind, and he will frequently behave in a mean and base manner. What can you call accomplished about a man like this?

The Zen Master Ta-hui has said that meditation in the midst of activity is immeasurably superior to the quietistic approach. Po-shan has said that if one does not attain to this meditation within activity, one’s practice is like trying to cross a mountain ridge as narrow as a sheep’s skull with a hundred-and- twenty pounds load on one’s back. I am not trying to tell you to discard completely quietistic meditation and to seek specifically for a place of activity in which to carry out your practice. What is most worthy of respect is a pure koan meditation that neither knows nor is conscious of the two aspects, the quiet and the active. This is why it has been said that the true practicing monk walks but does not know he is walking, sits but does not know he is sitting. (Orategama)

The Buddha’s Diamond Sutra:

Regarding the Dhyana Paramita—Meditation for Reaching the Opposite Shore—the Sutra says:

The beginner should consider and practise dhyana in two aspects: as cessation of the mind’s intellectual activities, and as realisation of insight. To bring wandering thoughts to a standstill is called cessation. To have realisations of the transitory nature, emptiness and lack of self-substance of all things is insight. At first, the beginner should practise each of them separately, but when, by degrees, he attains facility and finally attains perfection, the two aspects will naturally blend into one perfect state of mental tranquillity. . . .

Because the attention is distracted by the external world, the student is advised to turn to his inner, intuitive wisdom (prajna). If the process of thinking begins again  he is warned not to let his mind become attached to anything, because independent of the mind, things have no existence. Dhyana is not to be confined to sitting erect in meditation: one’s mind should be concentrated at all times. Whether sitting, standing, moving or working, one should constantly discipline himself to that end. Gradually entering into the state of samadhi, he will transcend all hindrances and become strengthened in belief, a belief that will be immovable. (Goddard and Suzuki)

Lester Levenson: (1993)

Q: How do you go about it? Just by meditating?

Lester: No. By seeing what we are. See, that the word “meditation” is a word that I’m not sure means the same thing to everyone. But by discovering what we are, we discover that we have all power, all knowledge, that we are unlimited.

Q: How am I to discover what I am if I don’t know what I am?

Lester: By turning all your attention on you, with the question “What am I?” and quieting the mind enough so that the real you is obvious. When your mind is quiet enough, your real Being is obvious to you, and when it is, you know, and you know that you know, and that’s it. So, the way is to keep that question going: What am I? And as disturbing thoughts come up you look at them and drop them. And if we keep that going, we reach a point where they don’t come up any more and then the mind is quiet; then we can see what we are; then we can undo the balance of the mind. Finally we can wipe out the entire mind in one stroke; then we’re totally free. (Seminar recorded in 1969)

Adi Shankara:

11. Knowing is not brought about by any other means than enquiry, just as an object is nowhere perceived without the help of light.

12. Who am I? How is this created? Who is its creator? Of what substance is this composed? This is the way of that enquiry.

13. I am neither the body, a combination of the elements, nor am I an aggregate of the senses; I am something other than these. This is the way of enquiry.

14. All things are produced by ignorance, and dissolve in the wake of knowing. The stirring of the mind must be the creator. Such is this enquiry.

15. The substance of everything is the undifferentiated, subtle and unchanging That, just as clay is the substance  of the jar, fibers are the substance of cloth, gold is the substance of an earring, water is the substance of waves, wood is the substance of a house, and iron is the substance of a sword. This is the way of that enquiry.

16. As I am also the undifferentiated, the subtle, the knowing, the witness, the ever-existing, and the unchanging, so there is no doubt that I am That. Such is this enquiry.

(https://www.shankaracharya.org/aparokshanubhuti.php)

Goddard, Dwight and D. T. Suzuki. A Buddhist Bible (First Edition). 1932. (http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/bb/index.htm)

Verhoeven, Martin J. The Sixth Patriarch’s Diamond Jewel Platform Sutra (3rd Edition). Buddhist Text Translation Society, Burlingame, CA. 2014.

Levenson, Lester. Keys to the Ultimate Freedom: Thoughts and Talks on Personal Transformation (edited by George A.Cappannell). Sedona, Arizona, Sedona Institute, 1993.

Suzuki, Daisetz Teitaro. Essays in Zen Buddhism (First Series). New York, Grove Press, 1949.

Suzuki, Daisetz Teitaro. Essays in Zen Buddhism (Second Series). London, Rider and Company, 1953.

Suzuki, D. T. The Lankavatara Sutra: A Mahayana Text (Based upon the Sanskrit edition of Bunyu Nanjo, 1923). London, 1932. (http://lirs.ru/do/lanka_eng/lanka-nondiacritical.htm)

Yampolsky, P. B. The Zen Master Hakuin: Selected Writings (Translated by Philip B. Yampolsky). Columbia University Press: New York, 1971. https://terebess.hu/zen/Orategama.pdf

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